Smashing stereotypes – Dr Lisa Briggs

Following on from our blog about how heritage scientists are smashing stereotypes, we are delighted to introduce you to Dr Lisa Briggs, an underwater archaeologist and archaeological scientist at The British Museum. In this blog, she details her career:

For many years I was an underwater archaeologist working on shipwrecks. Armed with an undergraduate degree in Archaeology and Ancient History from the University of Edinburgh, I worked on every project I could, both on land and underwater, but began to specialise in shipwreck sites around the world. When the archaeological excavations I worked on uncovered artefacts of special interest, some were selected to be ‘samples’ destined for the ‘lab.’ The laboratory seemed like a mysterious place where, through spider webs and magic, incredible results and discoveries were achieved that allowed us to learn so much more about the artefacts we had uncovered. After 10 years of wondering what actually happened in these mysterious laboratories, I decided to return to school and have now completed an MPhil in Archaeological Science (Cambridge) and DPhil (PhD) in Archaeological Science (Oxford).  I wish someone had told me earlier how much fun science can be!

My PhD work used DNA and organic residue analysis to study five shipwreck sites in the Mediterranean including finds from the Uluburun, Cape Gelidonya, and Kyrenia shipwrecks. Working on these artefacts was a dream come true. I now work in the Scientific Research Department of the British Museum where I use organic residue analysis to study pottery artefacts from a variety of sites. My favourite thing about my work is being intimately involved in the entire process. My background in archaeology allows me to visit sites and sample in-situ artefacts myself, before exporting these samples to our labs at the British Museum.  This way, I can see exactly how the samples were selected, recovered, handled, stored, and analysed. For example, sunscreen is a common contaminant detected in pottery from archaeological sites in sunny countries because after applying sunscreen archaeologists will sometimes touch the pottery with bare hands when digging it up. When I am allowed to sample artefacts myself I wear powder-free nitrile gloves while digging, sterilise my sampling tools between artefacts, and store the samples in sterilised glass containers while they are awaiting export back to the UK. This way we can eliminate issues of contamination, from the loess to the lab!

My career path may not be the most common one for a heritage scientist, but I think I background in archaeology has allowed me to contextualise the artefacts that I study. In my spare time I enjoy speaking at events that encourage kids, especially girls, to get into STEM subjects by showing them how exciting science can be. At the same time, I advocate for the humanities by showing why archaeology and ancient history are so important for our understanding of what makes us human. Archaeology, I dig it!

Lisa is on Twitter and Instagram as @lisaarchaeology

British Science Week 2022 – Smashing Stereotypes

British Science week are celebrating the diverse people and careers in science and engineering by encouraging STEM employees and researchers to share stories on social media about their day-to day work using #SmashingStereotypes and tagging @ScienceWeekUK. They want to showcase diverse and inspiring teams/individuals in STEM and are choosing some to highlight on their website. You can read those added so far here.

We are encouraging heritage scientists to use this opportunity to share their stories in order to make the field of heritage science more visible. For inspiration, you could read through our collated series of profiles of heritage scientists in training. The profiles highlight the various roles within heritage science and the multitude of way that individuals in the field start out their careers.

We have already had some fantastic examples of #SmashingSteroetyoes shared with us by members. The British Museum is showcasing each day the work of different members of their Scientific Research team. Follow @AntonyPSimpson to find out about roles including Colour Scientist, Underwater Archaeologist and X-ray Imaging Specialist. Some of the tweets are summarised below:

The National Galleries of Scotland has also shared with us a short film celebrating the bravery and dedication of Dr Elsie Inglis (1864 – 1917) who was a physician, surgeon, humanitarian, feminist, and pioneer of medical education for women. You can watch the film here.

If you do share your career stories for British Science Week 2022, please be sure to tag us (@HertSci_UK) and we will share them too.  We hope to help better highlight the wide variety of careers in heritage science and the inspiring ways that heritage scientists are smashing stereotypes.

British Science Week 2022 – Heritage Science in schools

This year, British Science Week has developed activity packs on the theme of ‘Growth’. There are packs for primary schools, secondary schools and communities; all of which include engaging activities that explore all sorts of growth, including buildings, eco-friendly behaviours, animals and even how we can grow plants on Mars! You can access the 2022 resources here, as well as activity packs from previous British Science Weeks.  

Other organisations who have been inspired to create their own educational resources for British Science Week include:

BBC Teach Resources

They have created a web page that hosts their best science, technology, engineering and maths resources for primary and secondary schools all in one place.

STEM Learning

They have created additional resources to support the ‘Growth’ theme, including on plant growth, animal growth and population growth.

Twinkl

Twinkl create educational resources used by teachers, schools and educators across the world. This year, they have developed resources that support another theme of British Science Week 2022- smashing stereotypes! The KS1 and KS2 resources have been designed to help young learners think differently about what is means to be a scientist.  They have also embedded British Science Week learning into their new app which uses Augmented Reality (AR).

STEM at Derby

The University of Derby is hosting STEM subject workshops that will support the British Science Week theme of ‘growth’. They will give students the opportunity to explore facilities, take on STEM challenges and discover career pathways.

Science Discovery Day

University of St Andrews’ annual #ScienceDiscoveryDay will take place online on 19 March. Follow @StAndEngaged as they publish different fun and educational STEM related activities and videos every 15 minutes.

Heritage Science in schools

Our community working group has identified increasing engagement with heritage science at school age as a key outcome for a future skilled and diverse heritage science community. They have been collecting examples of how heritage science is being used in a range of programmes targeted at school-age children. You can read the examples here, some of which include:  

  • The use of 3-D digital documentation of the three Forth Bridges to create a series of teaching packs
  • An activity pack from The National Archives to showcase the heritage science and conservation research happening in their Collection Care department
  • Heritage Science resources created by University of Cambridge Museums to help students develop research skills during A-Levels

Do you know of any other examples? Please let us know at coordinator@heritagescienceforum.org.uk

In the future, we want to map existing resources to the national curriculum and work in partnership with others to fill gaps where heritage science can make a contribution to the curriculum. British Science Week 2022 provides a starting point for our members to help with this. Many schools have been calling for speakers to take part in their events during the week, with the hope of making pupils aware of the variety of careers available in science. 

We would encourage members to think about volunteering to speak at such events in the future. There are many schemes that facilitate collaborations between schools and scientists, including:

A good example of this programme in action can be seen in this lecture recorded in February: STEM lecture for schools – Climate change: putting the dead to work  Jess McCoy (STEM Ambassador and PhD candidate at Northumbria University) gave a talk that explored the link between Palynology and climate change. It was organised by Denbigh School in Milton Keynes.

This initiative is an online, student-led STEM enrichment activity. It connects school students with scientists through energetic real-time text-based chats.

Such schemes provide an excellent opportunity for heritage scientists to make school-age children aware of the role of heritage science in society and the variety of careers available within the sector. This would tie into our strategic objective of creating a future skilled and diverse heritage science community.

You can learn more about British Science Week 2022 here.

British Science Week 2022 – events relevant to Heritage Science

British Science Week 2022 is taking place this year between 11-20 March. It will be a ten-day celebration of science, technology, engineering and maths with many events and activities taking place across the UK.

Below we have created a list of events that we think might be of interest to our members. In particular, we have rounded up events that align to the five societal challenges that were identified by our research working group to inspire and encourage connections between heritage science research and five issues of importance to society. They are Sustainable development; Climate emergency; Improved wellbeing; Equality and inclusivity; and Digital society. Events include:

Natural Prosperity and the Wellbeing Economy

Tuesday 24 May, 6-7 pm

This lecture from Gresham College will take place online and in person. It will envision a more equitable future where wellbeing and nature-based solutions take the place of growth at any cost.

Low and Zero-Carbon Energy Sources for Sustainable Buildings

Thursday 17 March, 12 -1 pm

This online talk will explore the two main pillars for saving energy in buildings – increasing energy efficiency and using low-zero-carbon energy sources.

Climate Change Adaptation and Green Infrastructure: Back to the Future

Monday 14 March, 12:30 – 1:30 pm

This online lecture, given by Dr Tony Harris from the University of South Wales, will explore how Green Infrastructure can deliver huge benefits to mitigate and adapt to climate change, for quality of life and for environmental benefits including natural flood management solutions.

Makeactive: an exploration of how a multimodal virtual maker space could assist non-sighted designer makers.

Tuesday 15 March, 12:30 – 1:30 pm

This online session from The Open University will explore the barriers for non-sighted and sight impaired practitioners to gaining equal access to digital skills. It will detail how the Makeactive-UK project is working to enable non-sighted and sight impaired users to work alongside their sighted peers to enable collaboration in the virtual world.

There are also events happening that are not directly related to the societal challenges but are still relevant and helpful to heritage scientists. These include:

Science Writing Course

Saturday 23 April, 10 am – 4pm

This online workshop will be particularly helpful to heritage science students and ECRs. It will share practical tips to develop a career in science writing.

British Science Festival 2022

Tuesday 13 – Saturday 17 September

The British Science Association and De Montfort University will host the Festival across the city of Leicester. Events will shine a light on cutting-edge science, as well as the more practical impacts research and innovation have on people’s daily lives.

Stonehenge Science at the British Museum

18 March

This family activity is inspired by the ground-breaking research in The World of Stonehenge exhibition and will help curious little minds to have a go at looking, listening, investigating, problem solving and creating – just like a museum scientist.

You can find out more information about British Science Week 2022 here.

Reflection on the NHSF/Icon Heritage Science group student and ECR workshop of March 2021

James E. Churchill is a Funaro scholar of the M.S. Historic Preservation program at the Graduate School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation of  Columbia University and an architectural conservator for Kreilick Conservation, LLC. A founding member of the archaeometallurgical committee at ASM International, he is passionate about widening the body of knowledge for conservation treatments in historic metalwork with interests straddling design, history and materials science.

In this blog post, James reflects on the event we held in March to understand the needs of heritage science students and Early Career Researchers, and how the Forum and Icon HSG might meet those needs.

I am an architectural conservator, currently practicing in and around Philadelphia and the northeast of the United States. Graduating from Columbia University in Historic Preservation, an equivalent to built heritage in the U.K., I had a particular focus on historic metalwork and have recently authored numerous articles on early modern nickel alloys for leading material science journals stateside. As a result, I was encouraged to consider a PhD with a British institution. After countless interactions with potential supervisors in the U.K., however, I became increasingly frustrated with little response and a lack of clarity for those caught between the science and art of heritage PhDs. Pushed between departments that included archaeology, environmental sciences, architecture and materials, I subsequently missed funding deadlines for 2021.

I heard about the NHSF through weeks of research on funding opportunities for British citizens and was interested in attending the workshop that was offered in March. The talks consisted of general information on the organization and more intimate sessions that split attendees up to discuss current issues and ideas for the future of heritage science in the U.K. Given the SEAHA funding is due to end in 2022, I was particularly interested in the funding initiatives, but also a more effective leadership that could liaise with universities to encourage such research to remain or return to the U.K. 

We live in incredibly important times. As government continue to jostle over climate policy, the world struggles with accelerating change that is collapsing animal populations, raising flood plains and desertifying swathes of land each year. Both intangible and tangible heritage is at grave risk. Protection of historic fabric is strongest when both science and art intersect to support vulnerable stakeholders. Only through this, will we reduce demolition and waste, lower our carbon footprint and protect life for all species on this planet. I believe the U.K. could offer a distinct advantage in a nimble post-Brexit world but requires a more robust system of support that centralises opportunities for emerging professionals. The NHSF is best positioned to offer this, and it is my hope that they work on those initiatives I and my fellow cohort suggested.

STORMLAMP – A research project measuring the impact of waves on historic rock mounted lighthouses

Author: Eve Allen

STORMLAMP is a research project that monitors and measures the impact of waves on the structural performance of lighthouses.

The project began in May 2016 and has focused on six lighthouses spread across the British Isles. These lighthouses were selected due to the particularly extreme wave environments that surround them and their unique structural elements or operational issues.

The STORMLAMP project is a great example of how engineering can benefit communities, trade and heritage. Historic rock-mounted lighthouses continue to play an essential role in the safe navigation around perilous reefs. However, their longevity is threatened by the battering of waves which may be set to increase with climate change. Virtual navigational aids such as GPS are fallible, and reliance on them can be disastrous. Mariners will continue to need lighthouses as these physical visual aids are strategically placed to assist navigation. The loss of any reef lighthouse will be incalculable in terms of safety, commerce and heritage.

A person stood on a helipad by the coast flies a drone.
James Bassitt (University of Exeter) operating Phantom drone from helipad at Fastnet Lighthouse

This complex project requires a unique combination of skills available from three UK universities: University College London (UCL), University of Exeter and University of Plymouth.

Three people sit in knee deep water in the COAST laboratory simulator. A model lighthouse at scale 1:40 is in the foreground.
Alison Raby (University of Plymouth), Dassa Dassanayake (University of Plymouth), Peter Dobson (Trinity House) in the COAST Laboratory at University of Plymouth.

University of Plymouth works on predicting extreme storm conditions for offshore rock lighthouses using long-term metoceanic data. Plymouth also carries out physical tests using scale models of lighthouses and uses Computational Fluid Dynamics modelling to identify how wave loading interacts with these rock structures. University of Exeter accesses the lighthouses for installing monitoring systems and performing modal analysis in order to identify the structural characteristics of the lighthouses. Finally, UCL uses the data produced from the other two universities to carry out detailed structural analysis to assess how resilient the lighthouses are under extreme wave impacts.

One of the lighthouses STORMLAMP is investigating is Wolf Rock, which lies about 8 miles from Land’s End. The tower is built upon a rocky pinnacle which is completely obscured at high tide and was selected for long-term monitoring by STORMLAMP due to the unbroken Atlantic waves it encounters. It’s one of the larger towers in the project at 41m and was built in 1869. As with many of the lighthouses access is via helicopter, landing on the helideck at the top of the tower. Modal testing took place in 18 July 2016 and James Bassitt, based at University of Exeter took some fantastic footage from the helicopter flight to Wolf Rock.

A sequence of five images show tests conducted on the 1:40 scale model lighthouse.
Wave impact tests with the 1:40 scale model of Wolf Rock lighthouse in the COAST Laboratory at the University of Plymouth

As the four-year project comes to a close, a final workshop is planned for May 2020 to showcase the STORMLAMP research to a wider audience. The workshop will involve presentations on lighthouse research and relevant areas from academics, heritage professionals and industry stakeholders, as well as discussions on future directions for related research.

To find out more about the project and the lighthouses STORMLAMP has been working with, visit the  website. There are plenty more pictures of the team in action and details of our partners and of course the lighthouses themselves.

https://stormlamp.org.uk/ 

@stormlamp_edu

Excavating the Rooswijk … virtually!

The next blog in our British Science Week 2020 series come from MSDS Marine, a Marine and Coastal Contractor specialising in the management, execution and support of archaeological projects in the marine environment. 

The Rooswijk was a Dutch East India Company vessel which sank on the treacherous Goodwin Sands, off Kent, in January 1740. The ship was outward-bound for Batavia (modern-day Jakarta) with trade goods. The site is now protected by the Protection of Wrecks Act 1973. The ship’s remains are owned by the Dutch Government; however, the UK government is responsible for managing shipwrecks in British waters, therefore both countries work closely together to manage and protect the wreck site.

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Figure 1. Clockwise from top left: Multibeam image showing the main area of wreckage on the Rooswijk, A diver excavating in 2018. Lead project Conservator Angela Middleton examining a concreted chest from the side. A screenshot of the Rooswijk virtual trail.

A two-year archaeological excavation project was undertaken between 2017 and 2018 due to the site being at high risk of loss through environmental changes and unauthorised diving. Wrecks such as the Rooswijk are part of the shared cultural maritime heritage across Europe and it’s important that cultural heritage agencies are able to work together to ensure that sites like this are protected, researched, understood and appreciated by all. The project involves an international team led by The Cultural Heritage Agency of the Netherlands (RCE) in partnership with Historic England. MSDS Marine are the UK Project Managers for the project.

In 2019 MSDS Marine, working with ArtasMedia, created a virtual tour of the site: https://msdsmarine.com/projects/dive-trails/rooswijk-virtual-trail/. Now the projects archaeologists are working with the μ-VIS X-ray Imaging Centre at the University of Southampton to further excavate the site virtually!

A number of stacks of coins were found during the excavation. Some of these were carefully separated by the conservators from the Investigative Science Team at Historic England (Figure 2). Some could not be separated.

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Figure 2. An MSDS Marine conservator separating coins from the Rooswijk in the Historic England laboratory.

A number of stacks were then sent to the μ-VIS X-ray Imaging Centre (www.muvis.org) at the University of Southampton to be micro-CT scanned. X-ray micro-Computed Tomography (µ-CT) scanning is a volumetric scanning technique, which enables us to virtually cut open materials to look inside with micrometre spatial resolution, while preserving the condition of the object we are scanning. During the scan, the object is rotated 360 degrees as thousands of 2D X-ray projection images are acquired. These 2D images are then reconstructed into a three-dimensional volume, which is made up of cubic pixels with intensities related to the amount of x-ray energy absorbed at that point.

We used the custom walk-in scanner (the Hutch) at the µ-VIS X-ray Imaging Centre to scan the concreted coins, which were stacked in sealed tubes to prevent excessive drying during the scanning process (Figure 3).

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Figure 3. Concreted coins mounted for µ-CT scanning within the custom Nikon/X-tek 450/225 kVp Hutch at the µ-VIS X-ray Imaging Centre, University of Southampton

The digital reconstructed volumes were then sent to MSDS Marine, where myVGL software (Volume Graphics GmbH, Germany) was used to manipulate the volume data, so that the individual faces inside the stacks could be seen (Figure 4). These coin faces have not been seen since they were packed into chests for the voyage almost 280 years ago.

MSDS 4
Figure 4. A Rider coin from 1739 that has been virtually separated from a large coin stack.

The coin face slice images will be sent to Jan Pelsdonk, the projects numismatist, for identification and will contribute to the understanding of the wreck.

The application of scientific techniques like CT scanning and digital model processing have contributed hugely to the understanding of underwater heritage, and continue to offer new and exciting ways of investigating these important cultural sites.

Phoebe Ronn, MSDS Marine Phoebe@MSDSMarine.co.uk

www.MSDSMarine.co.uk

Katy Rankin, µ-VIS X-ray Imaging Centre, University of Southampton, k.rankin@soton.ac.uk

www.southampton.ac.uk/muvis

Unlocking the archive through scientific analysis: heritage science research at The National Archives

Author: Natalie Brown Senior Conservation Manger – Engagement

The purpose of the Collection Care Department at The National Archives is to ensure access to our collection through its long-term preservation and display. Through established and innovative programmes of environmental management, conservation treatment, and research initiatives we aim to prolong the life of our collection for future generations and enhance the artefactual value of archival collections beyond what is written on the page. As a department crouched in an Independent Research Organisation (IRO) we are able to co-create applied and interpretive heritage science projects that enable us to investigate the material composition and physical state of the collection, study how art materials were used throughout history, model how materials will degrade, and address changing conservation practices. Below are two projects highlighting how we do this in practice.

ArcHives

The aim of ArcHives is to use wax as a bimolecular archive to inform upon the geographic origin of beeswax (and bees); the changing diversity of the hive microbiome in modern; and historical beeswax and the DNA of individuals associated with the production of the legal documents trapped in kneaded wax. The National Archives holds over 250,000 seals dating from the 11th to the 20th Century and this project will allow us to explore our wax seal collection on a biomolecular level. We hope to gain knowledge around the material composition of wax seals in our collection which will allow for a deeper understanding of the physical and chemical processes responsible for their ageing and degradation. The four-year project is led by an international cross-disciplinary team of molecular biologists, palaeoproteomicists, heritage scientists, historians and chemists. Lora Angelova PhD, the Head of Conservation: Research and Engagement, is an advisor on this project.

A manuscript from 13th century with 56 wax seals attached.
Reference: DL 27/270. A document created in 1217-32 with 56 attached wax seals, housed at The National Archives. Image courtesy of The National Archives.

AI for DigiLab

AI for DigiLab aims to combine artificial intelligence and advanced imaging techniques to analyse historic map collections. The project is a collaboration between The National Archives, Nottingham Trent University – ISAAC group, Yale, Getty GCI, and University of Southern Maine- Osher Map Library. The National Archives holds around six million maps ranging from the 14th to 20th Century, some of which are hand-drawn and colourfully painted. Image techniques, such as x-ray fluorescence scanning or multispectral imaging, are useful to investigate the materials, such as pigments, inks and dyes, used by the mapmakers. In the project, algorithms will be used to analyse the large datasets produced from these imaging techniques to determine the materials present in the maps. We hope that by applying big data analysis to international historic map collections we can shed light on maps production context, the trade of the materials, and possible influences between the metropolis, the colonies and across media. Lucia Pereira-Pardo PhD, Senior Conservation Scientist is a co-investigator on this project.

Four variations on an image of a map of Ulster taken with multispectral imaging.
Multispectral imaging of a map of Ulster by Richard Bartlett (1603) with pigment and dye references taken by Lucia Pereira-Pardo. Image courtesy of The National Archives.

Identifying Lauder’s pigments using XRF

The latest blog post in our British Science Week 2020 series is written by Clara Gonzalez, a post graduate student studying for an MLitt in Technical Art History at the University of Glasgow. She is currently doing a work placement with the Conservation Department of the National Galleries of Scotland.

The National Galleries of Scotland (NGS) and the Technical Art History Group, Glasgow University (TAHG) are working together on a systematic technical study of Christ Teacheth Humility by Robert Scott Lauder (1803-1869).

In 1847, Lauder submitted this painting to a competition organised to provide works of art for the Houses of Parliament. Lauder did not win, but the painting gained him public recognition. In 1849 it was acquired by NGS, becoming part of the early foundation of the collection.

The vivid palette used in the painting reveals Lauder’s interest in the effects of colour, inspired by Venetian 16th century painters such as Titian. At the time Lauder was working, traditional pigments were still in use, and artists experimented with pigments made from newly discovered compounds which were also commercially available.

A well-established analytical method for  the technical examination of paintings (specifically the identification of inorganic components of artists’ materials) is X-ray fluorescence (XRF). XRF is a non-destructive, non-invasive analytical tool. The TAHG XRF analyser is a portable, handheld Niton XL3t. This portability is particularly suitable for examination of this work due to its dimensions (2.5 x 3.7m) and offsite location in the gallery store. Using XRF, we will characterise inorganic elements present. In combination with other techniques (such as paint sampling) this analysis will be used to build a holistic picture of materials used, including pigments, and to gain an understanding of Lauder’s material choices for this painting, the most ambitious project of his career.

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XRF analyser during analysis 1.

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XRF analyser during analysis 2.

Person examining a small scanner mounted on a tripod, in front of a large painting.
Examining the XRF analyser in front of the painting.

Vanishing Heritage: Digital Documentation at Kilmartin Glen

This is the last blog post from Historic Environment Scotland in our current British Science Week 2020 series. 

Written by Bonnie (Nicole Burton) 

Since starting my Trainee position in August with Historic Environment Scotland, I have worked with the Digital Documentation team on various sites, ranging from Neolithic chambered cairns at Kilmartin Glen to Iron Age Brochs at the Isles of Lewis.

These projects were undertaken as part of the Rae Project, involving both the Digital Documentation and Digital Innovation team at the Engine Shed. The focus of the Rae Project is to digitally record all historic sites in Historic Environment Scotland’s care across Scotland, as well as their large array of collection items. The aim of this project is to have a full database for sites that are vulnerable or at-risk, using the datasets for management and monitoring.

The largest project I have been involved with was at Kilmartin Glen in August. The teams spent two weeks digitally documenting 15 sites and 30 collections items. Kilmartin Glen is located in Argyll and Bute, western Scotland and is enriched with prehistoric monuments and historical sites.

HES Digital 1
Laser scanning at Kilmartin Glen. © Historic Environment Scotland.

The documented sites range from chambered cairns, historic buildings, rock art, stone circles and stone artefacts. After the initial documentation had taken place the processing of the data had to be carried out using a wide range of software packages to create accurate 3D models that can be shared with the public [https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/cairnbaan-west-kilmartin-glen-7b63521779c440c19bd7079ba2d5842f].

Terrestrial laser scanning

Laser scanning is a straight forward process: the instrument has a rotating laser beam that reflects off a given surface, creating billions of points in 3D space representing the shape of a surface. Whilst scanning, multiple factors are needed to be taken into consideration, including the need for overlapping scans is to ensure a complete 3D model can be created, the terrain and environmental conditions. Our team uses a variety of laser scanners– some used for overview scans and others for the finer detail.

HES Digital 2
Using a laser scanning to digital document cup and ring marks at Achnabreck. © Historic Environment Scotland.

Photogrammetry

Photogrammetry is a technique of using a camera to take overlapping photographs ensuring all areas of the subject has been captured to create a 3D model. While simple in theory, the better the pictures, the better the model, so we make sure to use a colour checker and a good lens.

HES digital 3
Digital Innovation trainee Kieran Young using Photogrammetry at Achnabreck. © Historic Environment Scotland.

Heritage in Scotland is becoming more and more at risk due to increased flooding and the changing climate. The work our team is doing not only at Kilmartin Glen but on other sites like Skara Brae is aiding in the management and monitoring of significant cultural heritage.

If you use twitter and would like to keep up to date with our projects, then follow the #Raeproject and @Burton1495