Vanishing Heritage: Digital Documentation at Kilmartin Glen

This is the last blog post from Historic Environment Scotland in our current British Science Week 2020 series. 

Written by Bonnie (Nicole Burton) 

Since starting my Trainee position in August with Historic Environment Scotland, I have worked with the Digital Documentation team on various sites, ranging from Neolithic chambered cairns at Kilmartin Glen to Iron Age Brochs at the Isles of Lewis.

These projects were undertaken as part of the Rae Project, involving both the Digital Documentation and Digital Innovation team at the Engine Shed. The focus of the Rae Project is to digitally record all historic sites in Historic Environment Scotland’s care across Scotland, as well as their large array of collection items. The aim of this project is to have a full database for sites that are vulnerable or at-risk, using the datasets for management and monitoring.

The largest project I have been involved with was at Kilmartin Glen in August. The teams spent two weeks digitally documenting 15 sites and 30 collections items. Kilmartin Glen is located in Argyll and Bute, western Scotland and is enriched with prehistoric monuments and historical sites.

HES Digital 1
Laser scanning at Kilmartin Glen. © Historic Environment Scotland.

The documented sites range from chambered cairns, historic buildings, rock art, stone circles and stone artefacts. After the initial documentation had taken place the processing of the data had to be carried out using a wide range of software packages to create accurate 3D models that can be shared with the public [https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/cairnbaan-west-kilmartin-glen-7b63521779c440c19bd7079ba2d5842f].

Terrestrial laser scanning

Laser scanning is a straight forward process: the instrument has a rotating laser beam that reflects off a given surface, creating billions of points in 3D space representing the shape of a surface. Whilst scanning, multiple factors are needed to be taken into consideration, including the need for overlapping scans is to ensure a complete 3D model can be created, the terrain and environmental conditions. Our team uses a variety of laser scanners– some used for overview scans and others for the finer detail.

HES Digital 2
Using a laser scanning to digital document cup and ring marks at Achnabreck. © Historic Environment Scotland.

Photogrammetry

Photogrammetry is a technique of using a camera to take overlapping photographs ensuring all areas of the subject has been captured to create a 3D model. While simple in theory, the better the pictures, the better the model, so we make sure to use a colour checker and a good lens.

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Digital Innovation trainee Kieran Young using Photogrammetry at Achnabreck. © Historic Environment Scotland.

Heritage in Scotland is becoming more and more at risk due to increased flooding and the changing climate. The work our team is doing not only at Kilmartin Glen but on other sites like Skara Brae is aiding in the management and monitoring of significant cultural heritage.

If you use twitter and would like to keep up to date with our projects, then follow the #Raeproject and @Burton1495

Polychromy Revealed: from medieval wood craftsmanship to 3D printing (Paola Ricciardi)

The next post in our British Science Week 2018 series is by guest writer Paola Ricciardi. Paola Ricciardi is the Research Scientist at the Fitzwilliam Museum in Cambridge. She specialises in the non-invasive analysis of polychromy (multi-coloured painting) in cultural heritage objects. In this blog, Paola talks about a workshop on digital imaging, modelling, making and interpretation of 3D cultural heritage objects and their replicas.

The Fitzwilliam Museum holds a small but exceptional collection of medieval wood sculptures, largely polychrome, made across Western Europe c.1300-1550. For the most part extremely fragile, most of the sculptures have never been exhibited and are largely unknown to the public and to academics. Following a 10-month pilot project in 2017, we are currently running a series of activities funded by the Arts and Humanities Impact Fund of the University of Cambridge. These activities are aimed at maximising the impact of the pilot and at defining routes to impact for a large-scale research project – POLYCHROMY REVEALED – which will enable us to investigate, interpret, conserve and display the collection, ultimately transforming it into a resource that can be utilised for teaching, research and public engagement.

Picture of pair of kneeling angels. Copyright Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge
Pair of Kneeling Angels, Northern Italy?, 15th Century. Image copyright – The Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge.

Three events, running in March-May 2018, are particularly aimed at opening a dialogue with scholars, NGOs, industrial partners and crafts/technology practitioners interested in three-dimensional digital modelling; making; interpretation of; and interaction with, cultural heritage objects and their replicas. We want to assess the state-of-the-art of research in these fields and to establish guidelines for the choice of suitable and affordable solutions, which can then be shared with other museums and cultural institutions. Museum audiences are also involved and will be asked to respond to/interact with the outcomes of the initial phase of activities, in order to inform our methodology and choices for the large-scale project.

The real potential of ever-improving 3D visualisation and ‘making’ technologies is still to be fully explored and as such it is the focus of much attention, as demonstrated for example by a well-attended two-day conference recently held at the British Museum and by the ReACH project, led by the V&A Museum. On 15 March, we ran a half-day workshop in collaboration with the University’s Digital Humanities Network. The workshop brought together experts in a range of topics related to the study of, and interaction with, three-dimensional museum objects, such as 3D sensing, digital modelling, digital and physical making, as well as interpretation and outreach. Speakers and participants discussed the various ways in which digital 3D methods can support and enhance our study and the public’s perception of three-dimensional objects.

Image of panel of speakers. Copyright The Fitzwilliam Museum
Panel speakers. From left to right: Steven Dey, Anais Aguerre, Jonathan Beck and Panel Chair, David Saunders. Image copyright – The Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge

Workshop participants were given a demonstration of a structured light scanner which was used to produce models of a selection of polychrome wooden sculptures in the Fitzwilliam Museum collection. They were then asked to work in groups and issue a ‘creative challenge’ to design and produce objects inspired by the original medieval sculptures, based on the 3D models.

Image of Jonathan Beck using a structure light scanner to produce a 3D model of a medieval sculpture. Copyright The Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge.
Jonathan Beck using a structured light scanner to produce a 3D model of a medieval sculpture. Image copyright The Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge.

The challenge will soon be advertised to members of Cambridge’s Community Workshop MakeSpace and more broadly, and will result in their creations being displayed during a late-night opening of the Fitzwilliam Museum in May. We hope people will feel inspired by the creative challenge and we are very curious to see what they will create!

Image of working together to issue a creative challenge. Copyright The Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge
Working together to issue a creative challenge. Image copyright The Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge

Find out more about the Polychromy Revealed project

The Fitzwilliam Museum houses the principal collections of art and antiquities of the University of Cambridge, and holds over half a million objects in its care. It leads the University of Cambridge Museums (UCM), a consortium of the eight University Museums and the Cambridge University Botanic Garden, which works in partnership with other Cambridge University collections as well as with museums regionally, nationally and internationally. The University’s collections are a world-class resource for researchers, students and members of the public representing the country’s highest concentration of internationally important collections, all within walking distance of the City Centre. Arts Council England has awarded UCM National Portfolio Organisation status from 2018-2022.